V 1 V V ' V














Gary N. Calkins, Columbia University E. G. CONKLIN, Princeton University E. N. Harvey, Princeton University SELIG HECHT, Columbia University Leigh HoadLEY, Harvard University M. H. Jacobs, University of Pennsylvania H. S. Jennings, Johns Hopkins University

E. E. Just, Howard University Frank R. LILLIE, University of Chicago Carl R. Moore, University of Chicago George T. Moore, Missouri Botanical Garden T. H. Morgan, California Institute of Technology G. H. Parker, Harvard University Edmund B. Wilson, Columbia University

ALFRED C. REDFIELD, Harvard University Managing Editor


August to December, 1937

Printed and Issued by




The Biological Bulletin is issued six times a year. Single numbers, $1.75. Subscription per volume (3 numbers), $4.50.

Subscriptions and other matter should be addressed to the Biological Bulletin, Prince and Lemon Streets, Lancaster, Pa. Agent for Great Britain: Wheldon & Wesley, Limited, 2, 3 and 4 Arthur Street, New Oxford Street, London, W.C. 2.

Communications relative to manuscripts should be sent to the Managing Editor, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass., between June 1 and October 1 and to the Institute of Biology, Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Mass., during the re- mainder of the year.

Entered October lo, 1902, at Lancaster, Pa., as second-class matter under Act of Congress of July 16, 1894.



No. 1. August, 1937


Thirty-Ninth Report of the Marine Biological Laboratory 1

Sayles, Leonard P., and S. G. Hershkowitz

Placoid Scale Types and their Distribution in Squalus acan- thias 51

Marza, V. D., Eugenie V. Marza and Mary J. Guthrie

Histochemistry of the Ovary of Fundulus heterocHtus with Special Reference to the Differentiating Oocytes 67

Matthews, Samuel A.

The Development of the Pituitary Gland in Fundulus 93

Beams, H. W., and R. L. King

The Suppression of Cleavage in Ascaris Eggs by Ultracentri- fuging 99

Miller, E. DeWitt

A Study of the Bacterial and Alleged Mitochondrial Content

of the Cells of the Clover Nodule 112

Mast, S. O., and Nathan Stahler

The Relation between Luminous Intensity, Adaptation to Light, and Rate of Locomotion in Amoeba proteus (Leidy) . . 126

Abramowitz, a. a.

The Role of the Hypophyseal Melanophore Hormone in the Chromatic Physiology of Fundulus 134

Butler, Margaret Ruth

The Effect of its Nitrogen Content on the Decomposition of the Polysaccharide Extract of Chondrus crispus 143

Payne, Nellie M.

The Differential Effect of Environmental Factors upon Micro- bracon hebetor. Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its Host, Ephestia kiihniella Zeller (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae). HI 147

Hoadley, Leigh

Autotomy in the Brachyuran, Uca pugnax 155

Tyler, Albert, and Hans Bauer

Polar Body Extrusion and Cleavage in Artificially Activated

Eggs of Urechis caupo 164


DEC 2 9 m'?



Boyd, William C.

Cross-reactivity of Various Hemocyanins with Special Refer- ence to the Blood Proteins of the Black Widow Spider 181

No. 2. October, 1937

Welsh, J. H., F. A. Chace, Jr., and R. F. Nunnemacher

The Diurnal Migration of Deep Water Animals 185


The Problem of a Physiological Gradient in Mnemiopsis During Regeneration 197

Glaser, Otto, and George P. Child

The Hexoctahedron and Growth 205

Carver, Gail L.

Studies on Productivity and Fertility of Drosophila Mutants 214

Ball, Eric G., and C. Chester Stock

The pH of Sea Water as Measured with the Glass Electrode 221

Goldsmith, E. D.

The Relation of Endocrine Feeding to Regeneration, Growth, and Egg Capsule Production in Planaria maculata 227

Prosser, C. Ladd, and John Z. Young

Responses of Muscles of the Squid to Repetitive Stimulation

of the Giant Nerve Fibers 237

Sparrow, F. K., Jr.

The Occurrence of Saprophytic Fungi in Marine Muds 242

Whitaker, D. M.

Determination of Polarity by Centrifuging Eggs of Fucus furcatus 249

Tyler, Albert, and W. D. Humason

On the Energetics of Differentiation, VI. Comparison of the temperature coefficients of the respiratory rates of unfertilized and of fertilized eggs 261

Kenk, Roman

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Euplanaria tigris (Girard) 280


Investigations as to the Localization of the Micromere-, Skeleton and Entoderm-forming Material in Unfertilized Egg of Arbacia 295


Experiments on Determination in the Early Development of

Cerebratulus lacteus 317

Program and Abstracts of Scientific Meetings, Summer OF 1937 343


No. 3. December, 1937


Waterman, A. J.

Effect of Salts of Heavy Metals on Development of the Sea Urchin, Arbacia punctulata 401

Redfield, Alfred C, Homer P. Smith, and Bostwick Ketchum The Cycle of Organic Phosphorus in the Gulf of Maine 421

Anderson, Bertil Gottfrid, H. Lumer, and L. J. Zupancic, Jr. Growth and Variability in Daphnia pulex 444

Clarke, George L., and Donald J. Zinn

Seasonal Production of Zooplankton off Woods Hole with special reference to Calanus finmarchicus 464

LiLLiCK, Lois C.

Seasonal Studies of the Phytoplankton off Woods Hole, Massa- chusetts 488

Campbell, Mildred L., and Abby H. Turner

Serum Protein Measurements in the Lower Vertebrates. L The colloid osmotic pressure, nitrogen content, and refractive index of turtle serum and body fluid 504

Turner, Abby H.

Serum Protein Measurements in the Lower Vertebrates. H.

In marine teleosts and elasmobranchs 511

Goodrich, H. B., and Maurice A. Smith

Genetics and Histology of the Color Pattern in the Normal and Albino Paradise Fish, Macropodus opercularis L 527

Dalton, H. Clark, and H. B. Goodrich

Chromatophore Reactions in the Normal and Albino Paradise Fish 535

Sturtevant, a. H.

Autosomal Lethals in Wild Populations of Drosophila pseudo- obscura 542

Whitaker, D. M., and cm. Clancy

The Effect of Salinity upon the Growth of Eggs of Fucus fur- catus 552

Heilbrunn, L. v., and Karl M. Wilbur

Stimulation and Nuclear Breakdown in the Nereis Egg 557

Fry, Henry J ,

Studies of the Mitotic Figure. VL Mid-bodies and their sig- nificance for the central body problem 565

RiocH, David McK.

A Physiological and Histological Study of the Frontal Cortex

of the Seal 591

Index to Volume 73 603


Number 1




Editorial Board

Gary N. Calkins, Columbia University E. G. CONKLIN, Princeton University E. N. Harvey, Princeton University Selig HeCHT, Columbia University Leigh HOADLEY, Harvard University M. H. Jacobs, University of Pennsylvania H. S. Jennings, Johns Hopkins University

E. E. Just, Howard University Frank R. LILLIE, University of Chicago Carl R. Moore, University of Chicago George T. Moore, Missouri Botanical Garden T. H. Morgan, California Institute of Technology G. H. Parker, Harvard University Edmund B. Wilson, Columbia University

ALFRED C. REDFIELD, Harvard University Managing Editor

AUGUST, 1937

Printed and Issued by LANCASTER PRESS, Inc.



The Biological Bulletin is issued six times a year. Single numbers, $1.75. Subscription per volume (3 numbers), $4.50.

Subscriptions and other matter should be addressed to the Biological Bulletin, Prince and Lemon Streets, Lancaster, Pa. Agent for Great Britain: Wheldon & Wesley, Limited, 2, 3 and 4 Arthur Street, New Oxford Street, London, W.C. 2.

Communications relative to manuscripts should be sent to the Managing Editor, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass., between June 1 and October 1 and to the Institute of Biology, Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Mass., during the remainder of the year.


Preparation of Manuscript. In addition to the text matter, manuscripts should include a running page head of not more than thirty-five letters. Footnotes, tables, and legends for figures should be typed on separate sheets.

Preparation of Figures. The dimensions of the printed page (4% x 7 inches) should be borne in mind in preparing figures for publication. Draw- ings and photographs, as well as any lettering upon them, should be large enough to remain clear and legible upon reduction to page size. Illustrations should be planned for sufficient reduction to permit legends to be set below them. In so far as possible, explanatory matter should be included in the legends, not lettered on the figures. Statements of magnification should take into account the amount of reduction necessary. Figures will be reproduced as line cuts or halftones. Figures intended for reproduction as line cuts should be drawn in India ink on white paper or blue-lined coordinate paper. Blue ink will not show in reproduction, so that all guide lines, letters, etc. must be in India ink. Figures intended for reproduction as halftone plates should be grouped with as little waste space as possible. Drawings and lettering for halftone plates should be made directly on heavy Bristol board, not pasted on, as the outlines of pasted letters or drawings appear in the reproduction unless removed by an expensive process. Methods of repro- duction not regularly employed by the Biological Bulletin will be used only at the author's expense. The originals of illustrations will not be returned except by special request.

Directions for Mailing. Manuscripts and illustrations should be packed flat betvv^een stiff cardboards. Large charts and graphs may be rolled and sent in a mailing tube.

Reprints. Authors will be furnished, free of charge, one hundred re- prints without covers. Additional copies may be obtained at cost.

Proof. Page proof will be furnished only upon special request. When cross-references are made in the text, the material referred to should be marked clearly on the galley proof in order that the proper page numbers may be supplied.

Entered October 10, 1902, at Lancaster, Pa., as second-class matter under Act of Congress of July 16, 1894.

Vol. LXXIII, No. 1 August, 1937





Thirty-Ninth Report, for the Year 1936 Forty-Ninth Year

I. Trustees and Executive Committee (as of August 11,

1936) ; 1

Library Committee 3

II. Act of Incorporation 3

III. By-Laws of the Corporation 4

IV. Report of the Treasurer 5

V. Report of the Librarian 10

VI. Report of the Director 11

Statement 11

Addenda :

1. The Staff, 1936 16

2. Investigators and Students, 1936 18

3. Tabular View of Attendance 29

4. Subscribing and Cooperating Institutions, 1936 .... 30

5. Evening Lectures, 1936 30

6. Shorter Scientific Papers, 1936 31

7. General Scientific Meeting, 1936 34

8. Members of the Corporation 38



Frank R. Lillie, President of the Corporation, The University of Chicago. Merkel H. Jacobs, Director, University of Pennsylvania. Lawrason Riggs, Jr., Treasurer, 120 Broadway, New York City. Charles Packard, Clerk of the Corporation, Columbia University.

emeritus H. C. BuMPUS, Brown University. E. G. CoNKLiN, Princeton University. C. R. Crane, New York City.

H. H. Donaldson, Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology. M. J. Greenman, Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology. R. A. Harper, Columbia University. M. M. Metcalf, Waban, Mass. G. H. Parker, Harvard University.



W. B. Scott, Princeton University. W. M. Wheeler, Harvard University. E. B. Wilson, Columbia University.


H. B. BiGELOw, Harvard University.

R. Chambers, Washington Square College, New York University.

W. E. Garrey, Vanderbilt University Medical School.

Caswell Grave, Washington University.

S. O. Mast, Johns Hopkins University.

A. P. Mathews, University of Cincinnati. C. E. McClung, University of Pennsylvania.

C. R, Stockard, Cornell University Medical College.

to serve until 1939

W. C. Allee, The University of Chicago. Gary N. Calkins, Columbia University.

B. M. Duggar, University of Wisconsin.

L. V. Heilbrunn, University of Pennsylvania. L. Irving, University of Toronto.

W. J. V. Osterhout, Member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Re- search.

A. H. Sturtevant, California Institute of Technology. Lorande L. Woodruff, Yale University.

TO serve until 1938

E. R. Clark, University of Pennsylvania. Otto C. Glaser, Amherst College. Ross G. Harrison, Yale University.

E. N. Harvey, Princeton University.

H. S. Jennings, Johns Hopkins University.

F. P. Knowlton, Syracuse University. Franz Schrader, Columbia University.

B. H. Willier, University of Rochester.

TO SERVE until 1937

W. R. Amberson, University of Tennessee.

H. B. Goodrich, Wesleyan University.

I. F. Lewis, University of Virginia.

R. S. LiLLiE, The University of Chicago.

T. H. Morgan, California Institute of Technology.

A. C. Redfield, Harvard University.

C. C. Speidel, University of Virginia.

D. H. Tennent, Bryn Mawr College.

Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees

Frank R. Lillie, Ex. Off. Chairman. Merkel H. Jacobs, Ex. Off. Lawrason Riggs, Jr., Ex. Off. F. P. Knowlton, to serve until 1937.

B. H. Willier, to serve until 1937.


E. R. Clark, to serve until 1938. C. C. Speidel, to serve until 1938.

The Library Committee

E. G. CoNKLiN, Chairman. William R. Amberson,


C. C. Speidel.

A. H. Sturtevant.

William R. Taylor.

The Apparatus Committee

L. V. Heilbrunn, Chairman. W. R. Amberson.

D. J. Edwards. W. E. Garrey.

E. N. Harvey. L. Irving.

M. H. Jacobs.


No. 3170

11. ACT OF INCORPORATION Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Be It Known, That whereas Alpheus Hyatt, William Sanford Stevens, William T. Sedgwick, Edward G. Gardiner, Susan Minns, Charles Sedg- wick Minot, Samuel Wells, William G. Farlow, Anna D. Phillips and B. H. Van Vleck have associated themselves with the intention of forming a Corporation under the name of the Marine Biological Laboratory, for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a laboratory or station for scien- tific study and investigation, and a school for instruction in biology and natural history, and have complied with the provisions of the statutes of this Commonwealth in such case made and provided, as appears from the cer- tificate of the President, Treasurer, and Trustees of said Corporation, duly approved by the Commissioner of Corporations, and recorded in this office;

A^ow, therefore, I, Henry B. Pierce, Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, do hereby certify that said A. Hyatt, W. S. Stevens, W. T. Sedgwick, E. G. Gardiner, S. Minns, C. S. Minot, S. Wells, W. G. Farlow, A. D. Phillips, and B. H. Van Vleck, their associates and suc- cessors, are legally organized and established as, and are hereby made, an existing Corporation, under the name of the MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY, with the powers, rights, and privileges, and subject to the limitations, duties, and restrictions, which by law appertain thereto.

Witness my official signature hereunto subscribed, and the seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts hereunto affixed, this twentieth day of March, in the year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eighty- Eight. [seal]

HENRY B. PIERCE, Secretary of the Commonwealth.



I. The annual meeting of the members shall be held on the second Tuesday in August, at the Laboratory, in Woods Hole, Mass., at 11.30 A.M., daylight saving time, in each year, and at such meeting the members shall choose by ballot a Treasurer and a Clerk to serve one year, and eight Trustees to serve four years. There shall be thirty-two Trustees thus chosen divided into four classes, each to serve four years, and in addition there shall be two groups of Trustees as follows: (a) Trustees ex officio, who shall be the President of the Corporation, the Director of the Laboratory, the Associate Director, the Treasurer and the Clerk; (b) Trustees Emeritus, who shall be elected from the Trustees by the Corporation. Any regular Trustee who has attained the age of seventy years shall continue to serve as Trustee until the next annual meeting of the Corporation, whereupon his office as regular Trustee shall become vacant and be filled by election by the Cor- por?ition and he shall become eligible for election as Trustee Emeritus for life. The Trustees ex officio and Emeritus shall have all rights of the Trustees except that Trustees Emeritus shall not have the right to vote.

The Trustees and officers shall hold their respective offices until their successors are chosen and have qualified in their stead.

II. Special meetings of the members may be called by the Trustees to be held in Boston or in Woods Hole at such time and place as may be designated.

III. Inasmuch as the time and place of the Annual Meeting of Members is fixed by these By-laws, no notice of the Annual Meeting need be given. Notice of any special meeting of members, however, shall be given by the Clerk by mailing notice of the time and place and purpose of said meeting, at least fifteen (15) days before such meeting, to each member at his or her address as shown on the records of the Corporation.

IV. Twenty-five members shall constitute a quorum at any meeting.

V. The Trustees shall have the control and management of the affairs of the Corporation; they shall present a report of its condition at every annual meeting; they shall elect one of their number President of the Cor- poration who shall also be Chairman of the Board of Trustees; they shall appoint a Director of the Laboratory; and they may choose such other officers and agents as they may think best; they may fix the compensation and define the duties of all the officers and agents; and may remove them, or any of them, except those chosen by the members, at any time; they may fill vacancies occurring in any manner in their own number or in any of the offices. They shall from time to time elect members to the Corporation upon such terms and conditions as they may think best.

VI. Meetings of the Trustees shall be called by the President, or by any two Trustees, and the Secretary shall give notice thereof by written or printed notice sent to each Trustee by mail, postpaid. Seven Trustees shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The Board of Trustees shall have power to choose an Executive Committee from their own number, and to delegate to such Committee such of their own powers as they may deem expedient.

AUG 21 1937


VII. The accounts of the Treasurer shall be audited annually by a certified public accountant.

VIII. The consent of every Trustee shall be necessary to dissolution of the Marine Biological Laboratory. In case of dissolution, the property shall be disposed of in such manner and upon such terms as shall be de- termined by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the Board of Trustees.

IX. These By-laws may be altered at any meeting of the Trustees, pro- vided that the notice of such meeting shall state that an alteration of the By-laws will be acted upon.

X. Any member in good .standing may vote at any meeting, either in person or by proxy duly executed.

IV. THE REPORT OF THE TREASURER To THE Trustees of the Marine Biological Laboratory :

Gentlemen: Herewith is my report as Treasurer of the Marine Bio- logical Laboratory for the year 1936.

The accounts have been audited by Messrs. Seamans, Stetson and Tuttle, certified public accountants. A copy of their report is on file at the Laboratory and is open to inspection by members of the Corporation.

At the end of the year 1936, the book value of the Endow^ment Funds in the hands of the Central Hanover Bank and Trust Company as Trustee, was

General Fund, Securities $ 910,572.21

Real Estate 9,037.32

Cash 1,616.08

Library Fund, Securities 172,261.84

Cash 21,584.91


The income collected from these Funds was as follows :

General Endozvment $41,941.24

Library Fund 8,251.32


an increase of more than $2,000 over the income from these Funds in 1935.

The income due from these Funds in arrears, some of which may never be collected, was on December 31, 1936

General Fund $12,605.25

Library Fund 5,050.00



The total amount in arrears was about $325 less than on December 31, 1935.

The dividends from the General Biological Supply House have con- tinued— the total received for the year amounting to $12,700.

Retirement Fund. A total of $4,060 in pensions was paid. The Fund at the end of the year consisted of securities of the book value

of $18,923.27

Cash 684.04 $19,607.31

Income in arrears on December 31st was $ 312.75

Plant Assets. The land (exclusive of Gansett and Devil's Lane tracts), buildings, equipment and library, -represented an investment

of $1,755,892.28

less reserve for depreciation 471,880.72 $1,284,011.56

Income and Expenses. Expenses including $41,782.21 depreciation exceeded income by $6,951.86.

There was expended from current funds net $26,319.79 for plant account.

During the year the Laboratory acquired by gift from Dr. Meigs Lot " X," Bay Shore property and the bathhouse on it and by purchase the Howes property, completing the frontage on Water Street, and the assets of the Bar Neck Corporation which included the leasehold and buildings of the Penzance Garage and the adjacent Spindell lot. At the end of the year the Laboratory owed $8,500 on mortgage on the Howes property and $8,500 in notes given for the acquisition of the Bar Neck assets. In addition it owed on notes and accounts payable $10,855.71. It had accounts and notes receivable of $14,367.37 and $14,773.65 in cash and bank accounts in its current assets.

Following is the balance sheet, the condensed statement of income and outgo and the surplus account all as set out by the accountants :


Marine Biological Laboratory Balance Sheet, December 31, 1936

Assets Endowment Assets and Equities :

Securities and Cash in Hands of Central Hanover Bank and Trust Company, New York, Trus- tee—Schedules I-a and I-b $1,115,072.36

Securities and Cash— Minor Funds— Schedule II 8,298.06 $1,123,370.42


Land— Schedule IV $ 109,749.39

Buildings— Schedule IV 1,238,562.84

Equipment— Schedule IV 157,202.67

Library— Schedule IV 250,377.38 $1,755,892.28

Less Reserve for Depreciation 471,880.72


Cash in Dormitory Building Fund 223.24

Cash in Reserve Fund 24.65 $1,284,259.45

Current Assets :

Cash , $ 14,773.65

Accounts and Notes-Receivable 14,367.37

Inventories :

Supply Department $ 41,039.96

Biological Bulletin 12,179.92 53,219.88

Investments :

Devil's Lane Property $ 43,633.13

Gansett Property 5,614.49

Stock in General Biological

Supply House, Inc 12,700.00

Securities and Cash— Retire- ment Fund— Schedule V . . 19,607.31 81,554.93

Prepaid Insurance 3,293.50

Items in Suspense (Net) 323.44 $ 167,532.77


Liabilities Endowment Funds :

Endowment Funds— Schedule III . $1,114,980.01 Reserve for Amortization of Bond

Premiums 92.35 $1,115,072.36

Minor Funds— Schedule III 8,298.06 $1,123,370.42

Plant Liabilities and Funds :

Mortgage— Payable, Howes Property $ 8,500.00

Notes Payable a/c Bar Neck Property Purchase 8,500.00

Donations and Gifts— Schedule III 1,032,072.61

Other Investments in Plant from Gifts and Cur- rent Funds 235,186.84 $1,284,259.45

Current Liabilities and Surplus :

Accounts— Payable $ 5,317.04

Notes— Payable 5,500.00

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 38.67

$ 10,855.71 Current Surplus— Exhibit C 156,677.06 $ 167,532.77




Marine Biological Laboratory Income and Expense,

Year Ended December 31, 1936

Total Net

Expense Income Expense Income

Income : General Endowment Fund ... $ 41,941.24 $ 41,941.24

Library Fund 8,251.32 8,251.32

Instruction $ 8,176.73 10,305.00 2,128.27

Research 4,146.96 14,215.00 10,068.04

Evening Lectures 88.95 $ 88.95

Biological Bulletin and Member- ship Dues 9,133.99 9,087.00 46.99

Supply Department

Schedule VI 38,262.35 43,144.91 4,882.56

Mess— Schedule VII 21,588.75 20,443.21 1,145.54

Dormitories— Schedule VIII .. 31,984.12 11,965.84 20,018.28 (Interest and Depreciation charged to above three Departments See Sched- ules VI, VII, and VIII) 35,320.19 35,320.19

Dividends, General Biological

Supply House, Inc 12,700.00 12,700.00

Rents :

Danchakoff Cottages 294.76

Newman Cottage 100.96

Janitor's House 21.76

Howes Property 'il'i.'il

Bar Neck Property

Sale of Duplicate Library Sets Interest on Notes-Receivable . .


Maintenance of Plant :

Building and Grounds 23,393.18

Chemical and Special Appa- ratus 13,329.83

Library Department Expense 7,753.23

Truck Expense 910.27

Sundry Expense 173.58

Workmen's Compensation In- surance 509.71

General Expenses :

Administration Expenses .... 14,912.47

Endowment Fund Trustee . . . 980.29

Bad Debts 663.53

Reserve for Depreciation 41,782.21























14,912.47 980.29 663.53






Excess of Expenses over In- come carried to Current Sur- plus—Exhibit C 6,951.86 6,951.86

$183,210.81 $125,991.43



Marine Biological Laboratory, Current Surplus Account, Year Ended December 31, 1936.

Balance, January 1, 1936 $152,246.38


Reserve for Depreciation charged to Plant Funds 41,782.21

$194,028.59 Deduct :

Payments from Current Funds during Year for Plant Assets as shown in Schedule IV,

Land $10,146.34

Buildings 13,329.91

Equipment 5,421.95

Library .' 14,757.42

$43,655.62 Less,

Notes and Mortgage payable on account of additions to Plant, Land and Buildings $17,000.00

Received for Plant Assets dis- posed of 287.50

Adjustment of Accrued Charges on account of Library, De- cember 31, 1935 48.33 17,335.83


Pensions and Allowances Paid $ 4,060.00

Expenses on account of Retirement Fund

Securities 905.43



Retirement Fund Income $ 845.13

Profit on Sale of Retirement Fund Se- curities 40.42

$ 885.55 $ 4,079.88

Excess of Expenses over Income for Year as shown ^

on Exhibit B 6,951.86 37,351.53

Balance, December 31, 1936— Exhibit A $156,677.06

Respectfully submitted,





A report of the budget assigned to the Library by the Executive Committee for the year 1936 is as follows : books, $1,000 (with the understanding that any part of this not used for books be transferred to back sets) ; serials, $6,000; binding, $1,500; express, $300; supplies, $500; salaries, $7,150; back sets, $2,350; total, $18,800. The sum of $250.79 acquired by the Librarian by the sale of duplicates increased the total budget to $19,050.79. The expenditures of the Library under the same headings are itemized for the end of the year as follows : books, $695.02; serials, $5,471.00; binding, $1,614.85; express, $187.10; supplies, $386.65; salaries, $7,150; back sets, $3,478.86; total, $18,- 983.48. An unspent balance of $67.31 may be accounted due to the sale of duplicates and the Librarian hopes that this sum in reverting to the general accounts may be used by the Laboratory toward securing a drying unit for the basement room in the dormitory where the Li- brary's duplicate reprints are stored.

The acquisitions of the Library during 1936 follow : 34 back sets were completed and 20 partially completed; 29 of the completed sets were for the Marine Biological Laboratory and 5 for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; 12 of the partially completed sets were for the former and 8 for the latter ; the total number of current serial titles received was 1,339: 376 purchased by the Marine Biological Laboratory (19 new), 36 by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (1 new), 630 by exchanges with the " Biological Bulletin " (9 new) and 57 by exchange for the publications of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Insti- tution (18 new), 240 by gift, 224 and 16 respectively. The Marine Biological Laboratory purchased 86 new books and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution purchased 1, authors and publishers (authors, 8 and publishers, 26) presented 33 to the former and 1 to the latter ; 30 were old books variously acquired and a fine copy of Swammerdam's " Book of Nature," 1758, was sent to the Marine Biological Laboratory by J. C. Waller of Liverpool, England, accompanied by a letter of good will to the Laboratory, The new reprints filed were 3,339 (675 cur- rent and 2,664 of previous date). Uncatalogued, and therefore omitted from this count, 580 further 1936 reprints are on hand, making the excellent total of 1,255 current reprints received before February of the following year. This is the highest record for any year in the history of the Library, and justifies the innovation of last summer in the read- ing-room display of current reprints. About 1,000 of the older reprints filed were from the large collection of Dr. Oilman A. Drew's reprints. Mrs. Drew presented this collection to the Marine Biological Laboratory

AUG 21 1937


last summer. There remain from the valuable collection more than 6,000 reprints duplicate to the files in the Library stacks. These will be placed in the duplicate collection.

With the final statement of this report that the Library now totals 42,287 volumes and 94,980 reprints, the Librarian is under the obliga- tion to state that the stacks for serials are filled with an allowance of growth space for each current set for the next four years (including 1937) and that the serial sets are now spread through the entire fifth, fourth and second floors and the side shelves of the third (book) floor and the first (reprint) floor. This arrangement and spacing of the serial sets was accomplished during the fall of 1936. Space for new " back sets " can be made at one end of the " book stack " for a few years, since the present book holdings may be crowded into two thirds of the space they now occupy. The reprint boxes fill the first floor space allotted to them and will be very crowded before the end of four years. All duplicate serials and reprints have now been housed outside the Library. During the year many duplicate serials and reprints were sold or exchanged. This is shown in the unusual sales and filled-in serial sets recorded above. It is necessary to explain also how 50,000 volumes, which will be the total in four years if growth occurs at the present rate of about 2,000 annually, and 108,000 reprints if each year adds 3,500, will completely fill space that in 1925 was estimated to be adequate for 100,000 volumes, or 20,000 on each of five floors. The reprint floor at once reduces the available space for volumes to a capac- ity for 80,000. Besides this the many serial sets and books of quarto size and over reduce the space and half of the bound serials recorded in our count are in reality two volumes bound together, so that the Li- brary will at the end of the year 1940 actually be housing more nearly 75,000 volumes counted as volumes and not by the accession number, and 108,000 reprints.


To THE Trustees of the Marine Biological Laboratory :

Gentlemen: I beg to submit herewith a report of the forty-ninth ses- sion of the Marine Biological Laboratory for the year 1936.

1. Attendance. An inspection of the tabular summary of attendance on page 29 of this report and the corresponding summaries in earlier reports shows that during the past 14 years the attendance of investi- gators at the Marine Biological Laboratory has passed through two dis- tinct phases and now seems to be entering into a third. The first phase was marked by a steady annual increase during which the number of


investigators grew from 176 in 1923 to 362 in 1931, the latter figure be- ing the largest yet reached in the history of the Laboratory. In 1932, when the effects of the depression had become fully felt by most Ameri- can colleges and universities, the second phase began with a sharp drop in the attendance to 314, at approximately which level it was main- tained with no significant changes for four years. In 1936 with a sud- denness equalled only by that of the decrease in 1932 a large increase brought the figure back almost to its highest previous level (359 in 1936 as compared with 362 in 1931). Indeed, since the number of students, which fluctuates within the rather narrow limits from year to year, happened to be at about its maximum in 1936, the total attendance of investigators and students together, after allowing for duplications, was in that year the largest in the history of the Laboratory (473 in 1936 as compared with 467 in 1931). Particularly worthy of mention is the very large number of institutions represented by students and investi- gators in 1936 (158 as compared with the next-highest number of 143 in 1935).

At the time of the writing of this report, though accurate figures are not yet available, it appears likely that the attendance in 1937 will sur- pass all previous records. If, as seems possible, the Laboratory is now entering into a new period of increasing attendance, serious considera- tion must be given to the best means of preventing undue crowding in the future. Since without additions to the present laboratory buildings the maximum number of investigators that can be accommodated at one time does not greatly exceed the figures reached in 1931 and in 1936, further increases will be possible only by lengthening the season and flattening the peak of attendance which now occurs early in August. That very considerable possibilities in these directions still exist is shown by the following tabulation of the attendance during the past ten years at approximately ten-day intervals throughout the working season.

1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936

May 30 7 15 9 6 6 8 11 12 11 14

June 10 50 64 55 50 51 54 46 54 43 41

20 114 140 139 153 153 127 129 137 127 142

30 212 240 197 208 217 172 184 196 174 190

July 10 247 281 238 253 258 225 235 249 226 242

20 247 282 242 250 273 245 253 256 232 260

30 245 272 249 253 281 248 255 248 257 272

August 10 234 250 256 254 302 257 261 264 245 282

20 208 226 243 245 280 236 244 250 235 266

30 168 183 220 204 239 190 205 211 192 223

September 10 110 112 157 122 136 129 117 93 94 121

20 50 43 59 44 69 58 45 38 26 47

30 12 14 14 8 14 13 12 9 11 20

2. The Report of the Treasurer. While the figures given above


indicate that as measured by its attendance the recovery of the Labora- tory from the effects of the depression is now substantially complete, the same is not yet true with regard to its financial position, which though entirely sound, is still such as considerably to restrict its scientific ac- tivities. A study of the reports of the Treasurer for the past 6 years shows that the chief reason for this condition is the reduced income from the Endowment Fund. In 1931 the amount received from this source was $57,728.26; by 1934 the corresponding figure was $46,939.97. While it is gratifying to be able to record an increase in 1935 of approximately $1,000 above the amount received during the preceding year and a further increase of $2,000 in 1936, it is extremely unlikely, because of the low rates- of interest at which funds liberated by the maturing of securities can be reinvested, that the pre-depression income from this source can be restored. Fortunately for the Laboratory, special dividends declared by the General Biological Supply House dur- ing the past two years have helped to some extent to make good the loss of income from other sources. It is also encouraging to be able to report a small but satisfactory increase in 1936 over 1935 both in the gross sales and in the profits of the Laboratory's own Supply Depart- ment.

Next in importance to the income of the Laboratory from its endow- ment funds is that from the fees paid by institutions and individuals for research space. That financial recovery has in this case tended to lag behind scientific recovery is shown by the fact that whereas the number of investigators in attendance in 1936 was only 3 less than in 1931 the income from the space they occupied was less by nearly $4,000. To this extent, therefore, the burden of the depression has been transferred from colleges and universities to the Marine Biological Laboratory at a time when its own income from other sources has been significantly re- duced. It is encouraging to note, however, that during the past year there has been a substantial increase in the amount received by the Lab- oratory for research space, the figures for the years 1935 and 1936 be- ing $12,470.00 and $14,215.00 respectively.

3. The Report of the Librarian. During the year covered by this report the growth of the Library has continued at a very satisfactory rate. Particularly noteworthy are the increases in the number of jour- nals currently received (1,339 in 1936 as compared with 1,271 in 1935), the completion of a considerable number of back sets of journals, and further important additions to the reprint collection. With complete sets of almost all the more important periodicals in Biology and the related fields accessible at all times in the library itself, and with almost 100,000 reprints available for the use of investigators in their own


rooms, it can now be said without exaggeration that the biologists work- ing at the Marine Biological Laboratory enjoy library facilities which are unsurpassed anywhere. The growth of the library since 1926 is more completely summarized in the following table :

1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936

Serials received cur- rently 628 764 874 985 1,060 1,080 1,126 1,137 1,197 1,271 1,335

Total number of

bound volumes . 18,200 22,800 26,500 28,300 31,500 33,800 36,000 37,400 38,600 40,200 42,000

Reprints 38,000 43,000 51,000 59,000 64,000 70,000 76,000 81,000 86,000 92,000 95,000

4. Courses of Instruction. At its last meeting in 1936 the Executive Committee received and accepted with regret the resignation of Dr. El- bert C. Cole as head of the Course in Invertebrate Zoology, a position which he had filled with conspicuous success since 1932. As his suc- cessor the Committee appointed Dr. T. H. Bissonnette of Trinity Col- lege, who as a member of the Staff since 1926 and as Acting Head of the Course in 1936 is peculiarly well fitted to continue the work so ably directed by Dr. Cole and his predecessors.

5. Lectures and Scientific Meetings. During the past summer 13 evening lectures were given and 9 evening meetings were held for the presentation and discussion of shorter papers by investigators asso- ciated with the three Woods Hole scientific institutions. The number of papers so presented was 37; their titles are listed on page 31. In addition, the General Scientific Meeting on August 27 and 28, which was devoted exclusively to work accomplished at the Marine Biological Laboratory during the current season, was the most successful ever held. So large was the number of titles submitted that it was necessary to devote two full mornings to scientific papers and an additional after- noon to demonstrations. The program of this meeting on page 34 and the abstracts of the papers published in the Biological Bulletin for October 1936, give a very excellent picture of the work carried on at the Laboratory during the summer of 1936. In addition to its own scientific activities, the Laboratory also acted as host to the Genetics Society of America, which on September 3, 4 and 5 held in Woods Hole a very well-attended and successful meeting.

6. Acquisitions of Property. The past year has seen three impor- tant additions to the land and buildings owned by the Marine Biological Laboratory. The first of these, a very generous gift to the Laboratory by Dr. Edward B. Meigs, is the bathing beach and large bathhouse on Buzzard's Bay, together with the remainder of what is officially known as Lot X of the Bay Shore Property of Henry H. and Sarah B. Fay, having a total area of approximately 35,000 square feet. The beach, with a. frontage of approximately 200 feet on the water, is the best one


available in the